The adjective dogmatic means someone who is strongly expressing their beliefs as if they were facts.

Synonyms are assertive, dictatorial, intolerant, or stubborn.

The word origins from Late Latin (1680s) dogmaticus meaning “disposed to make positive assertions without presenting arguments or evidence”, and from Greek dogmatikos meaning “pertaining to doctrines”, from dogma meaning “opinion, tenet”, literally meaning “that which one thinks is true”, from dokein meaning “to seem good, think”.

The students are listening well if the lecture is dogmatic theology.

The dogmatic writer caught the interest of the readers.

His dogmatic decisions brought disaster in history.


The adjective prolific means someone that can produce a great number or amount of something.

Synonyms are abundant, creative, bountiful, or rich.

The word origins from French (16th century) prolifique, and from Medieval Latin prolificus. It comes from Latin proles meaning “offspring” plus facere meaning “to make, to do”.

Liza was a prolific baker in many kinds of bread.

The most prolific poet in the period of Vasas is Samuel Twardowski.

The scientists of this period were numerous and prolific.


The adjective audacious means someone who is willing to take risks in order to achieve something.

Synonyms are adventurous, bold, courageous, or foolhardy.

The word origins from Middle French (1540s) audacieux, from audace meaning “boldness”. It also comes from Latin audacia meaning “daring, boldness, courage”, from audax meaning “brave, bold, daring”, from audere meaning “to dare, be bold”. In English, the bad sense of “shameless, unrestrained by propriety” is attested from 1590s.

In their opinion, the plan was audacious to explore the forest.

People can make an audacious decision for their own sake.

So audacious of her to take such action in this situation.


The adjective superfluous means something that is unnecessary or is no longer needed.

Synonyms are excessive, expendable, redundant, or useless.

The word origins from Latin (late 14th century) superfluus meaning “unnecessary”, literally meaning “overflowing, running over”, from superfluere meaning “to overflow”. It comes from super meaning “over” plus fluere meaning “to flow”.

In my opinion, a saint has no superfluous merit.

Her presence at the evening party was superfluous.

The caustic soda becomes superfluous, once the glue is cured.


The adjective ingenious means something or someone who is very clever and involves new ideas, methods, or equipment.

Synonyms are creative, imaginative, innovative, or intelligent.

The word origins from Middle French (early 15th century) ingénieux meaning “clever, ingenious”, from Old French engeignos. It also comes from Latin ingeniosus meaning “of good natural capacity, full of intellect, clever, gifted with genius”, from ingenium meaning “innate qualities, ability, inborn character”, literally “that which is inborn”. It comes from in- meaning “in” plus gignere, suffixed form of root *gene– meaning “give birth, beget.”

Jacky has an ingenious solution to the puzzle.

Hero of Alexandria is an ingenious inventor of “Hero’s Fountain”, which is believed to have possessed a similar apparatus.

The book was so full of ingenious ideas and written in such a striking style.


The noun enigma means something or someone who is mysterious or difficult to understand.

Synonyms are mystery, conundrum, puzzle, or parable.

The word origins from 1530s meaning “statement which conceals a hidden meaning or known thing under obscure words or forms”, earlier enigmate (mid 15th century), from Latin aenigma meaning “riddle”. It also comes from Greek ainigma (plural ainigmata) meaning “a dark saying, riddle” and ainissesthai meaning “speak obscurely, speak in riddles”.

The unexplained things in the world remain as an enigma.

Where he came from was an enigma to the people.

The greatest enigma was her childhood memories.


The adjective ephemeral means something that lasts only for a very short period.

Synonyms are momentary, fleeting, brief, or temporary.

The word origins from 1560s. It comes from ephemera meaning “short-lived” plus –al. It is originally used for diseases and lifespans to mean “lasting but one day.” The extended sense of “transitory” is from 1630s.

The ephemeral ponds usually evaporate in the course of the summer.

This painting may be costly now but it has only ephemeral value.

She scorned at how ephemeral his love is!


The adjective esoteric means something different that is known or liked by only a limited number of people.

Synonyms are mysterious, arcane, mystical, or hidden.

The word origins from Greek (1650s) esoterikos meaning “belonging to an inner circle”, from esotero meaning “more within”, comparative adverb of eso meaning “within”. It is classically applied to certain popular and non-technical writings of Aristotle, later to doctrines of Pythagoras. In English, it means the first of Pythagorean doctrines.

Her esoteric interests set him apart from her friends.

He delivered an esoteric speech.

It was considered as an esoteric plan.


The noun eulogy means a writing or a speech which consists of high praises for someone who recently retired or passed away.

Synonyms are tribute, acclaim, compliment, or applause.

The word origins from Latin (mid-15th century) eulogium and Greek eulogia meaning “praise, good or fine language” (in New Testament, it means “blessing”). It comes from eu meaning “well” plus –logia meaning “speaking”. Eu legein meant “speak well of.”

Her mother delivered a long eulogy.

She ended her eulogy with a joke.

They were deeply touched by the eldest son’s eulogy.


The verb exacerbate means to make something that is already awful even worse.

 Synonyms are aggravate, provoke, annoy, or infuriate.

The word origins from 1650s, a back-formation from exacerbation or else from Latin exacerbatus, past participle of exacerbare meaning “irritate, provoke.”

The economy dropped down when the affecting factors exacerbate.

His words had just exacerbated the situation.

Air pollution exacerbates respiratory diseases.